Financial Statement Analysis FSA Ratios Process Tools Uses Users Limitation Types

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This is because current assets have decreased by 33.9% whereas current liabilities have declined by 51.5%. Trend percentages are computed by taking a base year and assigning its figures as a value of 100. Figures generated in subsequent years are expressed as percentages of base-year numbers. The second is to organize the selected information in order to emphasize on the relationships that exist between the crucial figures in a financial statement. Hence, the company increased its advertisement cost significantly and reduced the selling price in order to achieve higher sales volume. In such a case, the company had to spend a huge amount on the advertisement and reduce the selling price for market penetration.

As we can see in the comparative balance sheet above, the current assets of Kapoor and Co. have decreased by Rs 35,200 in the year 2018 over 2017. So, let’s understand a comparative balance sheet through an example. Consider the following balance sheets of M/s Kapoor and Co as on December 31st, 2017 and December 31st, 2018 for the illustration.

Comparison of common size statement over a number of years will clearly indicate the changing proportion of the various components of asset, liabilities, costs, net sales and profits. In addition, it shows how much it owes its shareholders and creditors in the form of liability and equity, respectively. So, business owners or investors can conveniently use a common analysis, which makes analysing the capital structure of a business compared to its competition easy.

  • Khatabook Blogs are meant purely for educational discussion of financial products and services.
  • Financial analysisand interpretation of these statements is required using various tools and techniques.
  • It is a Comprehensive record of the Cash and Non cash transactions taking place in the business, it finally shows the Cash flow from Different activities.
  • Each one of these tools gives decision makers a little more insight into how well the company is performing.
  • Thus, this entire scenario indicates that it was quite challenging to sell the goods during 2018.

One of the uses of ratio analysis is to compare a company’s financial performance to similar firms in the industry to understand the company’s position in the market. The management can then use the information to formulate decisions that aim to improve the company’s position in the market. The analysis of financial statements by their users aims to change the information presented in succinct and accessible forms for certain decisions. Financial statements presenting financial data for two or more periods are called comparative statements. Comparative financial statements usually give similar reports for the current period and for one or more preceding periods. Comparative statements are considerably more significant than are single-year statements.


Alexander Wall designed a system of ratio analysis and presented it in useful form in the year 1909. It checks just financial aspect of company’s performance and position but it ignores non-monetary characteristic of company. Take one of the statements as the base with reference to which all other statements are to be studied. In selection of the best statement, it should be noted that it belongs to a ‘normal’ year of business activities. Statement relating to an ‘abnormal’ year should not be selected as base; otherwise the trend calculated will be meaningless. Old Guards Company has a better and efficient credit and collection system because its debtors and trading stock amounts to 32% of total assets as compared to 39% in case of Young Ones Company.

common size analysis reveals

Similarly, there has been substantial decrease in other expenses (29.4% and 10,000). These items have gone to increase the total income before tax for the year by 32,200, thus reflecting that the management has been more concerned for the other incomes than the operating profits. The comparative statement is usually prepared to compare the figures in income statement or balance sheet of the current year with the corresponding figures of previous year.

Major aim of a company’s financial analysis for a specific period is to consider the financial position of the company, where it views the company’s financial balance and debt performance. The obtained parameters are of great importance, since it is the vital for growth, development and continued existence of companies, mainly because they determine the ability of its financing. Each item in the common-size statement has a common basis for comparison, for example, total assets, net sales. Common-size income statements provide common size analysis reveals information concerning what proportion of sales dollar is absorbed by cost of goods sold and various expenses. On comparative, common-size statement, the comparisons demonstrate the changing or stable relationships within groups of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and other financial statement categories. Care must be exercised when such comparisons are made since the percentage change can result from a change in the absolute amount of the item or a change in the total of the group of which it is a part, or both.

What To Study While Analyzing A Comparative Income Statement?

An increasing trend in sales might not be the result of larger sales volume, but may be because of increased sales price due to inflation. In order to avoid this limitation, figures of the current year should be first adjusted for price level changes from the base year and then the trend ratios be calculated. A financial user can use it to contrast the financial performances of various entities at one glance.

Thus, a comparative balance sheet not only gives a picture of the assets and liabilities in different accounting periods. It also reveals the extent to which the assets and liabilities have changed during such periods. Such a statement helps managers and business owners to identify trends in the various performance indicators of the underlying business. The fundamental objective of any analytical method is to simplify or reduce the data under review to more understandable terms. Financial statement analysis may be essential for management to recognize levels of cash receipts and disbursements in business operations. A statement of cash flows lists cash flows related to operating activities, investments and financing transactions.

Common size financial statements show that the line items are proportional to an overall base figure instead of absolute figures. The basic analysis of financial statements depends on the information extracted from the financial statements to calculate other ratios. Each firm or company has capital or funds to finance its operations.

common size analysis reveals

It may be that a 100% change in trend ratio may represent an absolute change of 1,000 only in one item, while a 20% change in another item may mean an absolute change of 1, 00,000. D. The Statement of Cash Flows provides useful information about the inflows and outflows of cash that cannot be found in the balance sheet and the income statement. Financial statement is a report which describes the financial health of a company. Financial statements are usually compiled on a quarterly and annual basis and provide useful financial information to the user of financial statement.

Prelim paper 1 of Financial Management for TYBMS Sem 5 by Vipin Saboo Tutorials

Describe the different techniques of financial analysis and explain the limitations of financial analysis. The reciprocal of equity ratio is known as equity multiplier, which is equal to total assets divided by total equity. A high capital gearing ratio indicates a company is having large funds bearing fixed interest and/or fixed dividend as compared to equity share capital. The numerator of this ratio consists of all debt, short term as well as long term, and the denominator of this ratio is the total of all assets . The individual assets are expressed as a percentage of total assets i.e. 100 and different liabilities are calculated in relation to total liabilities. The fixed assets of Old Guards company is larger than of Young Ones Company .

common size analysis reveals

A high inventory turnover may be caused by a low level of inventory which may result in frequent stockouts and loss of sales and customer goodwill. Higher the ratio more secures the debenture holders and other lenders would be with respect to their periodical interest income. The term Shareholders Funds refers to all claims of preference shareholders and equity shareholders and reserves and surpluses. The turnover of Old Guards is larger than Young Ones Company , but the cost of goods absorbs a larger i.e. 56% of net sales compared to 49% in case of Young Ones Company.

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Importance of Cash Basis Accounting | Advantages and Disadvantages

The cash position of Young Ones Company (7% of total assets) compares favorably with that of Old Guards (2.7%). Financial Statement Analysis particularly Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss account are very useful for taking long time investment decision. A ratio is an expression of a mathematical relationship between one quantity and another. If a ratio is to have any utility, the element which constitutes the ratio must express a meaningful relationship. Ratio analysis can disclose relationships which reveal conditions and trends that often cannot be noted by inspection of the individual components of the ratio.

It facilitates investors and creditors to evaluate past performance and financial status and predict future performance. The principal objective of financial reporting is to give information to present and potential investors and creditors and others to make rational investment, credit and other decisions. Successful decision making requires assessment of the past performance of companies and assessment of their future prospects.

Basically, it is done to assess the financial status and performance of entity from the information contained in financial statement. Find out the absolute change in the items mentioned in the balance sheet. This increase or decrease in absolute amounts is mentioned in Column III of the comparative balance sheet. Financial Ratios and Financial Statement Analysis emphasizes on the influence of financial analysis in business.


This has to be calculated by subtracting preferred dividends from the company’s net earnings and divide by common equity dollars in the company. This is obtained by dividing the share price of the company’s stock by EPS. Financial statements are used by investors and business analysts to evaluate the earning potential and growth of a company. They are the Profit and Loss A/c, Income and Expenditure A/c, and Balance Sheet.